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Petronas To Deliver The Worlds First FLNG By 2016

Petronas will complete the world’s first FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) facility in the first quarter of 2016. Major corporations are joining the trend of switching to Natural Gas and it has not gone unnoticed. People from all over the globe are starting to realize the harmful effects of oil, coal and other traditional fuels.

Kuala Lumpur, April 21 (Reuters) – The world’s first floating Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project, built by Petronas, is expected to supply its first cargoes in the first quarter of 2016, senior officials from the Malaysian state-oil firm said on Tuesday.

Read the full article here: http://goo.gl/pAzxKC

Via Downstreamtoday and courtesy of Reuters

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Geothermal Basics

Geothermal energy is an exciting and relatively new source of energy. If harvested, it can provide abundant amounts of clean energy. Check out the below video to get the low-down on geothermal energy basics.

Courtesy of US department of energy, @Energy

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North East Entrepreneur Meet For BCPL Products

On the 25th of March, A northeastern seminar & entrepreneurial meeting will take place in Shillong, showcasing the downstream plastic processing industry on behalf of Brahmaputra Gas Cracker and Polymer Limited’s (BCPL) products.
GAIL India is the principal promoter of BCPL which is the first ever petrochemical project in the entire North East India.
The Plant will provide high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) totaling 2, 20,000 Tones per Annum (TPA) and 60,000 TPA of Polypropylene (PP). Additionally raw pyrolysis gasoline and fuel oil will also be produced. The plant  highlights our commitment to “Make In India” movement & creating new infrastructure across India.
If you are an entrepreneur or if you are interested in the industry, and would like to know more about the event or and any other relevant information please contact us at social@gail.co.in

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Different Purpose, Different Pipelines

Gas is pumped at long distances using trunk gas pipelines, but for delivery of gas to end consumers, gas pipelines of a smaller diameter – gas distribution networks – are used. Depending on the consumer category, there are low-pressure (for gas supply to residential buildings), high-pressure, and medium-pressure networks designed for supplying industrial plants.

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GAIL Partners With The Film Heritage Foundation

The Film Heritage Foundation was set up by Shivendra Singh Dungarpur in 2014 with the objective to preserve India’s rich film history? Since its inception the foundation has launched education initiatives with the aim of teaching the public the tools to preserve film, to create film history awareness and much more. GAIL has proudly partnered with the Film Preservation and Restoration School India for their event (FPRSI2015) that took place from 22nd to 28th Feb.
For more information, visit: http://www.filmheritagefoundation.co.in/

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Shale Gas 101 – Extraction

Shale gas is extracted using an amalgamation of different methods and technologies, the most important being directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas is natural gas trapped within shale formations. Shale formations have low permeability which historically had made extraction a difficult process and not economically viable. Today advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made shale gas a viable source of energy. The extraction process starts with drilling a vertical well down to the shale layer, where then a horizontal well is drilled throughout the shale layer using a solution known as ‘mud’ to cool and lubricate the drill. Once drilling is completed a casing pipe is put down the vertical & horizontal well, then cement is pumped throughout the well to create a cement wall between the well and the outer layer. A cement plug is inserted into the well to create separate sections. A pipe gun is fed through the horizontal well where explosives are fired creating a fracture in the shale formations. A mixture of water and sand is then fed through the fracture, which in larges the fracture and enables the gas deposits to be collected. After this process the water, sand and gas deposits are extracted.

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Shale Gas : Origins

Basically, Shale gas is natural gas – primarily methane – found in shale formations, some of which were formed
300-million-to-400-million years ago during the Devonian period of Earth’s history. The shales were
deposited as fine silt and clay particles at the bottom of relatively enclosed bodies of water.

Some of the methane that formed from the organic matter buried with the sediments escaped into sandy rock layers adjacent to the shales, forming conventional accumulations of natural gas which are relatively easy to extract. But some of it remained locked in the tight, low permeability shale layers, becoming shale gas.

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What is CBM?

Coal Bed Methane (CBM) are Hydrocarbon gases formed in coal beds during the coal matter metamorphism process, i.e. changing of its structure, properties, and composition under exposure to temperature and pressure. Their main component is methane, whose concentration in the mixture reaches from 80 to 98 per cent.

During coal mining, it was important to extract methane from mines to prevent explosions. The United States was the first country that decided to turn it into a commercial enterprise. Ten per cent of gas is produced there today is using this technique. Most of the CBM is still wasted in traditional coal mining leading to large volumes of greenhouse gases.

Read more about CBM here http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/coal-seam-methane/coal-bed-methane/

The Role Of Natural Gas In Energy Independence

India is the world’s fourth largest consumer of energy and has set its sights on energy independence by 2030. Energy independence is necessary to provide access to those 300+ million Indians, living without power today. This ambitious target looks dubious, given the fact that India imports 80% of its crude oil requirements and more than 80% of its electricity generation plants are dependent either on oil or coal. A big shift towards indigenous resource production along with a gradual reduction in import dependence is required to achieve this tall order. Energy consumption will continue to grow on the back of a growing manufacturing sector and modernisation programmes.

So, India needs more than renewables to meet the rising demand. In such a situation, the thrust on indigenous exploration and production of natural gas is important. Historically, natural gas has been significantly cheaper than other fuels like motor spirit, naphtha, diesel, low sulphur heavy stock and furnace oil. Also, natural gas has become the preferred fuel for fertilisers, petrochemicals and has even found a place in power generation. To achieve energy independence, it is necessary to increase the share of natural gas in the primary energy mix from about 9% in 2014 to 20% by 2030 or even more.

In the meanwhile, India needs to reduce dependence on oil. In the US, new extraction technologies have revitalised wells that were considered inactive, resulting in a shale gas and oil boom. According to the BP 2014 statistical world energy review, natural gas production has grown more than 20% over the past five years, touching an all-time high of 328 billion cubic feet per day. However, one of the key factors for liberalisation of natural gas markets in the US is its robust pipeline network to deliver gas at competitive rates across the country. India can emulate the US model. However, more is needed from the government in the form of support through progressive policies – from tax systems to pricing mechanisms, which could be enablers for gas discoveries through exploration. India will have to effectively utilise energy reserves and strike a balance between demand and supply to become energy independent by 2030.

Sources:

  1. http://www.livemint.com/Politics/7EkcrE6zgNmZJSlta0exlK/Renewable-is-the-way-forward-for-Indias-energy-security-Na.html
  2. http://www.livemint.com/Politics/X6qdFX9RxPaLlXSqoT0dAP/IEA-terms-Indias-plan-to-become-energy-independent-as-ambit.html
  3. http://www.desertsun.com/story/money/industries/morrisbeschlosseconomics/2014/09/02/u-s-now-worlds-leading-natural-%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20gas-producer/14976767/
  4. http://www.financialexpress.com/article/fe-columnist/natural-gas-for-indias-energy-security/14655/
  5. http://www.pngrb.gov.in/newsite/Hindi-Website/pdf/vision-NGPV-2030-06092013.pdf
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Natural gas transformation process

As natural gas is extracted and sent to a refinery in a raw state, many impurities and additives come along with it. To further refine and for the ease of transportation and storage, natural gas is cooled to -162C using heat exchange tubes, which transforms it from a gas to a liquid state, where further separation of unwanted additives such as butane are extracted, refined and sold separately. The Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is then transported using specialized LNG carriers or a pipeline network to another processing facility, which re-heats the LNG to Natural gas and then piped to consumers using a pipeline network know as Piped Natural Gas.

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The World’s Largest Solar Project

BrightSource’s LPT solar thermal system is operating at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) in California’s Mojave Desert. Ivanpah, which began commercial operation in 2013, is delivering power to PG&E and Southern California Edison. The project is currently the largest solar thermal power plant in the world. Ivanpah was constructed by Bechtel and is operated by NRG Energy one of the project’s equity investors.